The steps in the formation of a normal scar offer many opportunities for the process of wound healing to become side tracked Even when all the steps do eventually occur, delays can cause abnormal healing.infection is the most common Threaten to wound healing.
Infection-Threaten to Wound Healing
All infected wounds will show at least some of the following signs:
- Abnormal smell
- Persistent inflammation with an exudate
- Warmth and redness
- Delayed healing
- Continued or increasing pain
- Weak, crumbly granulation tissue that bleeds easily
Operationally, the dirtier the wound, the more it must be rigorously cleansed to avoid infection.
- Old age
Patients who smoke have poor wounding healing—in addition to suffering a number of other skin problems that include wrinkling, premature skin aging, higher risks of squamous cell carcinoma, psoriasis, and hair
Ionizing radiation damages actively dividing cells. In wounds, the regrowing epithelium, the newly growing blood vessels, and the fibroblasts that form new connective tissue are likely to be damaged by a large dose of ionizing radiation. Normal x-ray imaging is usually not a problem. Cancer therapies, however, give relatively high doses of ionizing radiation and, in areas of the body exposed to radiation therapy, wounds heal poorly and infections are more common.
Protection of Caregivers
Immunization.,A health clinic, office, or hospital will have written safety rules and procedures for controlling infections, and these should be reviewed regularly with staff. The rules should include a list of steps to be taken by healthcare workers who inadvertently come in direct contact with a patient’s blood or body fluids—for example, by an accidental needle stick.
Any patient can potentially carry the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Medical staffers working on the first stage of wound care—inspecting, cleansing, closing, and covering—should wear protective eyewear, a surgical mask, and gloves that are not easily ripped. Although they will be wearing face masks, medical personnel who have upper respiratory infections should further protect their patients by not talking or coughing while leaning over wounds.