When cells in the breast will start to grow limitless, functionless and out of control, there would be a chances of breast cancer. These cells grows together and forms the tumor, which can be identified with breast palpation or imaginary studies. All tumors are not a malignant, but some tumors are cancerous. It grow into surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the other body parts.
Women are more affected than male, but some extent men can get breast cancer. To identified lump in early period, women should be palpated their breast 10th day of menstrual cycle. This is a exact period where they can prevent cancer.
Types of Breast Cancer
Breast carcinoma is divided in two parts. Ducts or ductal and Lobules or lobular carcinoma.
This cancer starts in the cell lining the milk ducts. Ductal carcinoma in situ is a pre-cancer, which is located only within the ducts. Invasive or infiltrating ductal carcinoma which is invasive carcinoma, spread outside of the duct.
This carcinoma is starts in the lobules. Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is located only in the lobules. It is not considers a cancer, but it is a risk factor for developing invasive breast cancer. Invasive or infiltrating lobular carcinoma. It is invasive cancer which is spread outside of the lobules.
Other types of breast cancer….
- Papillary breast cancer
- DNA mutation or changes can be affected normal cells to become cancer.
- DNA passed on from parent to children.
- Lifestyle and habits – What you are eating, exercising etc.
Sign and Symptoms
Following are the sign and symptoms, which we identified in breast cancer woman…
- Feeling lump when palpating breast. It is feel like a hard knot or thickening in the breast or sometimes it feels under the arm
- Changes occurs in breast shape and size
- Bloody discharge occurs suddenly from the breast. It is occurs in only one breast.
- Nipple turned inverted.
- Nipples are sores sometimes.
- Breast skin irritates or some changes, like dimpling, puckering, scaliness or new creases present.
- Redness, swollen, tenderness, warm, with or without rashes with dimpling resembling the skin anorange colour, called peau d’ orange.
- Pain in the breast.
TNM Staging System
TNM system is most commonly used tool for describe the stages.
- Tumor (T): How large is the primary tumor? Where is it located?
- Node (N): Has the tumor spread to the lymph nodes? If so, where and how many?
- Metastasis (M): Has the cancer metastasized to other parts of the body? If so, where and how much?
- Stage 0 (zero), that is noninvasive ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS),
- Stages I through IV (one through four), which are used for invasive breast cancer.
These stages provides a way of describing the cancer, so doctors can be worked together to plan the best treatments.
How We can Approach to a Breast Cancer
There are two types of breast cancer, Localized and Metastasize.
Localized Breast Cancer
In Localized Breast Cancer, there are Operable Breast Cancer (OBC) and Locally Advance Breast cancer (LABC).
When the cancer is operable, you can directly take a decision of surgery (Sx), then select Breast Conservation Therapy (BCT) or Modified Radical Mastectomy (MRM) as per diagnostic reports and doctor advice.
In operable breast cancer, when tumor size less than 5cm or 1-2 inch can be operated.
In Locally Advance Breast Cancer, You have to take approach of NACT or Sx. In this breast cancer criteria for surgery is size of the tumor more than 5cm or 1-2 inch, can be operable
When cancer is identified on metastasized, there is no role of surgery.
How to Prove Cancer
Breast-conserving surgery (lumpectomy or partial mastectomy) often used for early-stage breast cancers.
Targeted therapies, agents uses which are specially target a known critical molecular pathway of tumor growth rather than using a broad ‘shotgun’ approach.
When cancer spreads beyond breast, sometimes to the bones. Some drugs can be helped to treat the spread of cancer to the bones.
Scintimammography (molecular breast imaging)
In scintimammography, a radioactive drug is called a tracer. It is injected into a vein. The tracer to be attached to breast cancer cells and it is detected by a special camera.
This is a best tool to identify or screen healthy women for breast cancer. In this medical test, more pictures of the breast are taken.
This is a high-frequency sound waves which create an image of the breast tissues. Ultrasound could be distinguished between a solid mass, which may be cancer or non-cancer.
It is an magnetic fields. It is not a x-rays. MRI can be used to measure the tumor size. MRI is uses after a woman has been diagnosed with clear picture of the possible cancer.
Biopsy gives the correct type of cancer. There are two types of biopsies.
Incision Biopsy – In this type of biopsy, small mass from the lump for test.
Excision Biopsy – in this type of biopsy, entire lump is remove for test.
FNAC deals with individual cell.
Complete Blood Count (CBC)
It is done to made sure, your bone marrow is functions properly.
It is done to see minerals in you blood. Enzymes shows abnormal if cancer has spread. Calcium levels could be high if cancer has spread to the bone. Alkaline phosphate is an enzyme which can be associated with disease, it spread to the bone, liver and bile ducts.
If you have evidence of an active hepatitis B infection, then you have to take prior medication to suppress the virus before starting the chemotherapy. Chemotherapy helps to grow the hepatitis virus and helps in damage the liver.
Blood Tumor Marker Tests
Blood tumor marker test is not recommended in early-stage of breast cancer, it does not give correct result. It is useful to monitor the growth of recurrent or metastatic.
In x-rays, there is a small amount of radiation used. You can identify, cancer which has been spread from breast to the lungs.
A radioactive dye or tracer is injected into the patient’s vein and perform the scan. It helps to look spread of cancer to the bones.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan
A PET scan shows the cancer has spread to organs outside of the breast. It is used to measure the size of the tumors and to determine the accurate location.
Treatment for Breast Cancer
There are several ways to be treated breast cancer, depending on its type and stage.
In local treatment. tumor is treated without affecting the rest of the body. There is a two local therapies used for breast cancer include…
- Radiation therapy
Above treatments are more useful for earlier stage which is less advanced cancers.
In this treatment, drugs are using, which is given by mouth or directly in the the bloodstream. It is called systematic treatment because they could be reached cancer cells anywhere in the body.
There are several different types of drugs can be used, including…
- Hormone therapy
- Targeted therapy
Many women will get more than one type of treatment for their cancer.