Now days, each person should be known, how to give Basic Life support. Basic Life Support, it is a training of life saving of a person when he is in life and death situation.
Basic life support is giving by the medical person. Any ordinary person could be given basic life support in any emergency, if he would be gone through the Basic Life Support Training.
Step – I
Assessment and Scene Safety
- Assess the victim for a response
- Look for normal or abnormal breathing.
- If there is no breathing or no normal breathing ( i.e. only gasping )
- Make the scene safety for you and the patient , e.g., middle of the road bring patient/victim to one side of the road or if victim is in the swimming pool, first take out from the water on the hard surface area.
Step – II
Activate the Emergency Response System & Get an AED
- Activate the emergency response system first
- Tell another member to Get an Automated External Defibrillator(AED), if available
- By the time start cardiopulmonary resuscitation to maintain blood supply with brain
- As soon as AED reach, Ask him/her to activate system
- You remain with patient / victim
Step – III
- Palpate the carotid pulse of the victim.
- Exact below the earlobe, you have to palpate.
- Palpate for 5 seconds not more than 10 seconds…
Step – IV
Begin Cycles of 30 Chest Compression’s & 2 Breaths (CPR)
- If you do not feel a carotid pulse within 10 seconds
- Immediately start to perform chest compression / CPR (Cardio-pulmonary Resuscitation)
- Start 30 chest compression with 2 breaths (1 cycle)
- Complete 5 cycles of compression’s & breaths (30:2 ratio)
- Starting with compression’s C – A – B sequence.i.e. (for 2 min)
- C – Chest Compression
- A – Airway Management
- B – Breathing Techniques
C – Chest Compression
- Chest compresses with heal of the palm and other hand place on it.
- Press it at least 1/3rd the depth of the chest, approximately 2 inches ( 5cm) in adult and 1.5 inches (4cm) in children.
A – Airway Management
Airway management is to be done with two methods
- Head Tilt and Chin Lift Method
- Jaw Thrust Method
Head Tilt and Chin Lift Method
- Tilt the head of the victim and chin to be lift
- To lift the tongue and relieve the airway obstruction of an unresponsive victim
- Do not press soft tissues deeply, under the chin, which might block the airway
- Do not use the thumb to lift the chin
- Do not close victim’s mouth completely.
Jaw Thrust Method
- This technique is used when victim has a head or neck injury
- When we suspect a spine injury
B – Breathing Techniques
- Mouth to mask Respiration
- Bag and mask ventilation
BLS / CPR for Children from Age of One Year to Puberty
- Chest Compression – Ventilation ratio for 2 rescuer (CPR) is 15:2
- Depth of Compression – At least 1/3rd the depth of the chest, approximately 2 inches ( 5cm) in adult and 1.5 inches (4cm) in children.
- Techniques of Compression – 1 or 2 handed method for very small children
- To activate the emergency response system – (Infants, Children and Adults )
- If you did not witness the arrest & are alone, provide 2 min of CPR before leaving the victim, to activate the emergency response system & get the AED ( or defibrillator)
- If the arrest is sudden & witnessed, leave the victim, to activate the emergency response system & get the AED or defibrillator, & then return to the victim.
High Quality CPR in Adults Include…..
- Start compressions within 10 seconds of recognition of cardiac arrest.
- Rationale: Helps in recovery
- Push hard, Push fast: compress at rate of at least 100-120/min with a depth of at least 2 inches (5cm) for adults, approximately 2 inches (5cm) for children, & approximately 1 ½ inches (4cm) for infants.
- Allow complete chest recoil after each compression.
- Rationale: it allows blood to flow into heart.
- Minimize interruptions in compressions (try to limit interruptions to < than 10 seconds.)
- To minimize interruption perform the switch when AED is analyzing rhythm.
- Give effective breaths that make the chest rise.
- Note visible bilateral chest rise.
- Avoid excessive ventilation.
- Intra-thoracic pressure increases which diminishes venous return to the heart and decreases the cardiac output.
After Arrival of AED
- POWER ON the AED
- Attach AED pads to victim’s bare chest – adult pads for the victim 8yrs and above age groups.
- Place one pad on upper right chest i.e. directly below the clavicle / collar bone.
- Place other pad on the side of the left nipple.
- Attach AED cables
AED pad placement for Adults
- Right – Just below the clavicle / collar bone
- Left – Side of the left nipple, with top edge of the pad a few inches below the armpit.
- CLEAR the victim and ANALYZE the rhythm.
- As AED prompts you to clear the victim during analysis.
- Everyone must clear the victim & do not touch.
- AED may take 5-15 sec to analyze the rhythm.
- If AED advises a shock,
- it will also tell you to clear the victim.
- After physical & visual clearance from the victim
- press SHOCK button.
- If the shock is not needed or after any shock delivery, IMMEDIATELY RESUME CPR, starting with chest compressions.
- After 5 cycles or about 2 min of CPR
- The AED will prompt you to repeat steps 3 & 4.
- If shock is not advised by AED, then immediately restart CPR beginning with chest compressions.