A wound is a damaged area of the body.
Types of Wounds
- Abrasions are scrapes. Mild abrasions remove epidermis; serious abrasions also remove the dermis and, sometimes, subcutaneous tissue. An abrasion is usually a broad, shallow wound with irregular edges.
- Lacerations are cuts. When made by a knife-like object, a laceration is a narrow, deep wound with sharp edges. When made by a blunt object, a laceration is a rip with jagged edges.
- Crushes or contusions are compression wounds. A crush wound bruises and damages the skin and the underlying tissue, although the skin can remain closed in some crush wounds.
- Punctures are narrow, deep wounds. Typically, punctures have small openings with sharp edges. Puncture wounds have a relatively high risk of infection.
- Avulsions are wounds in which tissue has been torn out. Sometimes, the avulsed tissue remains partly connected to its normal surroundings.
- Burns are wounds made by external destructive energy (e.g., heat) or by external chemicals (e.g., acid). First-degree burns are superficial and red. Second-degree wounds include damage to the dermis and produce blisters Third-degree wounds go deeper than the dermis and produce dry, dead tissue.
- Ulcers are usually made by innate destructive processes, such as ischemia. Ulcers often have destruction of tissue in a broad, roughly circular area
- Scars are Many parts of the human body can heal after being wounded, but few wounds heal seamlessly. The new seam, or patch, is called a scar. Scars are mainly connective tissue and cannot replicate the specialized functions of the original injured tissue. In the skin, scars are covered by a layer of epidermis (Habif, 2004).
Scars are imperfect replacements for damaged tissue, but scars are a natural result of healthy healing. Large wounds, wounds that heal slowly, and wounds involving extensive destruction of the surrounding tissues heal with large scars; nonetheless, these scars are not necessarily abnormal.
Normal scars can lead to problems. When the healing situation is not ideal, however, scars are more likely to become problems. After poor healing, some scars become unnecessarily large or unnecessarily weak.
* Dehiscence is the spontaneous re-opening of a closed wound before it has fully healed.
Hypertrophic scars are caused by excess deposition of collagen fibers in a healing wound. This overactive scar-making process is usually triggered by a prolonged regrowth (proliferative) phase during healing.
Keloids are also caused by the excess deposition of collagen in a healing wound. Keloids, however, are benign tumors, and the tendency to develop keloids is inherited, African Americans being particularly susceptible. Unlike hypertrophic scars, keloids develop late in the healing process; they can show up months or even years after the injury. Keloids, which do not regress spontaneously, are usually found on the upper half of the body.
All scars go through a process of shrinking or contracting. Enlarged scars, however, sometimes contract excessively, becoming disabling or disfiguring ridges of connective tissue called contractures.