Micro-nutrients are required in smaller amounts in human body, this category includes vitamins and minerals. Micro-nutrients are needed for proper utilization of micro-nutrients and enabling the body to produce enzymes, hormones and other substances essential for proper growth and development. Adequate fluid and fiber are also essential for proper body functions. Individual meal plans is vary; however, the proportion of nutrients recommended remains the same.
Vitamins are essential for good health because they assist important chemical reactions within cells. Vitamins can be found in balanced meals with plenty of fresh fruit and vegetables. The body stores only small amounts of water-soluble vitamins (Vitamin B complex and C) so regular daily intake is important. Cereals, pulses, fruits and vegetables are good sources of water-soluble vitamins. Sources of vitamins A, D, E and K – all fat-soluble vitamins stored in body fat include whole milk, butter, cheese, fatty fish etc.
Minerals are present in bones, teeth, soft tissue, muscle, blood and nerve cells. They help to maintain physiological processed, strengthen skeletal structures, preserve heart and brain function as well as muscle and nervous systems. When minerals are low in the body, can put stress on essential life function.
Calcium supplementation may be required in elderly people, pregnant and lactating women. Iron supplementation is necessary during and after pregnancy.
Micro-nutrients and herbal supplements (ADA 2016 recommendations)
There is no clear evidence that dietary supplementation with vitamins, minerals, herbs, or spices can improve diabetes, and there may be safety concerns regarding the long-term use of antioxidant supplements such as vitamins E and C and carotene.
Salt intake across the entire population is usually high. Lower levels are recommended for all, especially for people with diabetes. As hypertension is a recognized risk factor for diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease, sodium control and restriction is important for people with diabetes. Most of the sodium comes from processed / preserved / bakery or restaurant foods; the salt added at the table or in cooking is a very small percentage of the whole. The recommended daily salt intake irrespective of disease status its given below…
|Daily Salt Intake|
2300 mg of sodium is the equivalent of approximately 1 teaspoon of table salt.
Fruits and vegetables are low in sodium and also higher in potassium, a factor in reducing the risk of high blood pressure. Meals containing fresh fruits and vegetables, less processed food, food containing herbs and species instead of salt, should be encouraged.
Sodium (ADA 2016 recommendations)
As for the general population, people with diabetes should limit sodium consumption to 2,300 mg/day, although further restriction may be indicated for those with both diabetes and hypertension
Alcohol should be consumed in moderation, whether an individual is diabetic or not. This entails drinking two or less standard drinks of alcohol a day, or < 7 drinks pr week or women, or < 14 drinks per week for men.
|Alcohol Type||A Standard Drink|
|Beer||341 ml (12 oz)|
|Table Wine||142 ml (5 oz)|
|Spirit||43 ml (1.5 oz)|
|Fortified Wine||85 ml (3 oz)|
Delayed hypoglycaemia can occur up to 14 hours after alcohol consumption in people using insulin or insulin secretagogues. To prevent delayed hypoglycaemia, alcohol should only be consumed with meals or snacks containing carbohydrates. Alcohol should not be consumed by pregnant women, people who have pancreatitis and severe dyslipidaemia.
Alcohol (ADA 2016 recommendations)
- Adults with diabetes who drink alcohol should do so in moderation (no more than one drink per day for adult women and no more than two drinks per day for adult men).
- Alcohol consumption may be place people with diabetes at increased risk for delayed hypoglycaemia, especially if taking insulin or insulin secretagogues. Education and awareness regarding the recognition and management of delayed hypoglycaemia are warranted.
It is important to bear in mind that sugar-free products / food can affect blood glucose levels. This is because they contain other carbohydrates or protein. An acceptable daily intake (ADI) describes the amount of food additives that can safely be consumed.