Friday , April 19 2019
Introduction of quality management


Quality means “degree of excellence” and depends on what the person perceives in a particular situation. The can be user-oriented,supplier-oriented or cost oriented. Quality is an essential constituent of every activity in the organisation. Quality is considered as a high management priority; therefore,incorporates necessary strategies to improve the product or service quality.

Quality is expressed by the ISO definition: “The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs”. In simpler words, one can say that a product has good quality when it “complies with the requirements specified by the client”.

Quality can be interpret as “Customer’s expressed and implied requirements are met fully”.

When you buy a ‘mink’ coat from a department store in Japan, they would invite you to store the fur coat in their temperature-control room during the hot summer season free-of-charge. They call these extra little things as ‘extra-ordinary customer satisfaction’ or ‘delighting the customers’

Quality will help to determine the organisation’s success through customer loyalty, strong brand reputation, fewer returns and replacements which will lead to reduced costs, attract and retain good staff.

the main aspects of quality include good design, good functionality and infrastructure, predictability, reliability, consistency, durability and value of money. Quality in healthcare is a patient-centered approach that an be used to deliver high-quality care as a basic human right.

Quality in healthcare can be divided into three components they are: Quality Design, Quality Control and Quality Improvement .

Quality Design

Quality design uses the planning tools first to define the organisation’s mission, which includes understanding the customers’ needs  and provide appropriate services, and then to provide the resources to achieve service delivery excellence.

Quality Control

Quality control applies to monitor, supervise and evaluate the methods to make sure that all activities comply with with the set defined system resulting with high quality services being delivered. Quality control is primarily aimed at the prevention of errors.

Quality Control defined by ISO as “the operational techniques and activities that are used to satisfy quality requirements. “

Quality Improvement

Quality improvement involves proactively understanding the stated and implied needs of the customer resulting in continual improvement

Customer-based Definitions

  • Edwards [1968] Quality consists of the capacity to satisfy wants…
  • Gilmore [1974] Quality is the degree to which a specific product satisfies the wants of a specific consumer.·
  • Kuehn & Day [1962] In the final analysis of the marketplace, the quality of a product depends on how well it fits patterns of consumer preferences.
  • Juran [1988] Quality is fitness for use.
  • Oakland [1989] The core of a total quality approach is to identify and meet the requirements of both internal and external customers.

Manufacturing & Service-based definitions

  • Crosby [1979] Quality [means] conformance to requirements
  • Price [1985] Do it right first time

Value-based definitions

  • Broh [1982] Quality is the degree of excellence at an acceptable price and the control of variablity at an acceptable cost.
  • Feigenbaum [1983] Quality is the degree to which a specific product conforms to a design or specification
  • Newell & Dale [1991] Quality must be achieved in five basic areas: people, equipment, methods, materials and the environment to ensure customer’s need are met.
  • Kanji [1990] Quality is to satisfy customers’ requirements continually; TQM is to achieve quality at low cost by involving everyone’s daily commitment.